[20.06.2008]НАУЧНЫЙ РУКОВОДИТЕЛЬ И КОНСУЛЬТАНТ ДИССЕРТАНТОВ
[17.06.2008]Список книг Д.А.Алиева
On June 27, 2008 the talk of famous Japanese scientist in the field of photosynthesis, Professor Murata N. will be held in the Institute of Botany.
On June 25, Tarlan Mammadov Hazarpasha oglu will defend his dissertation entitled "Identification, characterization and ... →
The International Conference and Workshop on "Bioinformatics: Current Progress and Practical Applications" devoted to the 80th anniversary of J. Aliyev... →
В тяжелое для страны время политических игр трудный путь борьбы академика Джалала Алиева во имя принципов чистоты науки и торжества истины →
ORIGIN: The variety was released at Research Institute of Agriculture crossing local "Garagylchyk" cultivar with "Norin-10" by a multistage selection. →
Д.А.Алиев. Влияние микроэлементов на некоторые физиологические процессы и урожайность озимой пшеницы. →
Brief essay on scientific activity of Professor JALAL ALIYEVMore than fifty years of fruitful researches of Professor Aliyev are devoted to study on the theory of photosynthetic activity as the base of productivity of agricultural plants, mainly of wheat.
In the consecutive and purposeful activity J. Aliyev develops complex researches on photosynthesis as a base of production process. The cycle of these researches covers physiological, biochemical and molecular-genetic bases of plant productivity and also a study of production processes in all levels of structural- functional organization of vital function of the plant organism - from molecular to the whole plant and sowing.
By analysis of parameters and attributes of photosynthetic activity, morphophysiological and agronomic peculiarities, factors of external environment and using the results of study of real and potential possibilities of wheat genotypes the principles that determinate an efficient and high yield of ideal type of wheat were developed. Essential in the determination of "ideal" wheat type is the stability of the parameters of a leaf, which together with optimum height of a stalk and vertical orientation of the leaves, promotes a favorable spatial arrangement of leaves and creates the best architectonics of a crop. Thus, an effective utilization of the energy of solar radiation and increase of vegetable and economic valuable organs is provided even with plentiful nitric nutrition and irrigation. The opportunity of hereditary transfer of these and other useful attributes lies in a scientific basis of the author's selection works.
A wide range of variability of assimilation of carbonic acid during ontogenesis depending upon the morphophysiological attributes of genotypes and their donor-acceptor relations was revealed. New high-productive genotypes are characterized by a more stable intensity of photosynthesis, i.e. a longer period of active photosynthesis with repeated peaks during vegetation. In sum with a high photosynthetic activity and attractive force of ear, it makes the basis of a high crop. In research of carbonic acid gas exchange, the positive connection between true photosynthesis and photorespiration was shown for the first time. It is believed that the high intensity of observable photosynthesis of high-productive genotypes with a great intensity of photorespiration is supported at the expense of a greater true photosynthesis. The relation of true photosynthesis to photorespiration in ontogenesis is rather constant and is equal in the average 3:1 with an increase of the given relation at intensive genotypes, and losses of assimilated carbon at photorespiration is about 30%. Thus, it is possible to speak about a parallel increase of an intensity of true photosynthesis and photorespiration during ontogenesis. In opponent to the usual earlier assumption of some authors about dissipation of photorespiration Professor Aliyev has proved by versatile experiments, that the idea to low photorespiration with the purpose of increasing of a plant's productivity is incorrect because the high productivity is characterized by a high intensity both of photosynthesis and photorespiration.
In studying the intensity of photosynthesis and distribution of assimilates, formed in the leaves and ear of contrast wheat genotypes with application of 14СО2 was provided that the contribution of the ear in the grain filling at all genotypes much exceeds the contribution of a flag leaf, although the intensity of photosynthesis of the ear is less than those of a flag leaf. Thus at high-productive intensive genotypes the contribution of the ear in the grain filling is more. Just at the expense of ear photosynthesis beginning from a phase of milk ripeness, 30-45% of the protein of wheat grain is synthesized. The process of amplified synthesis of protein by ear of high-productive genotypes is correlated with a high intensity of photosynthesis and activity of enzymes of the primary СО2 assimilation - ribulose-1,5 bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, phosphoenolpiruvate carboxylase and carbonic anhydrase.
A significant place in the research of key enzymes of photosynthesis is allocated to carbonic anhydrase, which plays an important role in the photosynthetic activity of plants. Structural- functional organization of carbonic anhydrase of higher plants was investigated in detail; the crystals of plant carbonic anhydrase from Cicer arietinum leaves was found and its quaternary structure was determined for the first time. In contradiction to an animal carbonic anhydrase, the carbonic anhydrase of dicotyledonous plants is oligomer protein, in data of the author - octamer, consisting from 8 identical subunits, each of which contains one atom of zinc. The molecule of carbonic anhydrase of dicotyledonous chickpea plant has a bilayer structure, in which eight subunits are located on the tops of two squares. It was shown that carbonic anhydrase is present in practically all of the investigated plant species and is mainly located in the photosynthetic organelles of plants. It was found in a membrane and stroma of chloroplasts, as well in plas-malemma of a cell. This enzyme participates in the transport of carbonic acid and its concentration in a carboxylation site. As a whole, carbonic anhydrase carries out diverse functions in plants, including ones not directly connected with the photosynthetic process.
Is was determined that in comparison with extensive genotypes highly -productive ones differ by a high intensity of СО2 assimilations and a high activity of enzymes in the primary assimilation of carbonic acid. The rate of biosynthesis of the basic transport form of carbon - sucrose and the products of glycolate metabolism, and the rate of the СО2 evolution on the light at the expense of photorespiration at high-productive genotypes is also higher, that correlates with the rate of СО2 assimilation and the activity of RUBISCO. Each genotype is characterized by a certain value of a ratio of Ribulose-1,5-bis-phosphate-carboxylase/oxygenase activities and its change at disturbance of donor-acceptor relations between the organs of plants has a temporary character.
By the results of investigations of the primary photosynthetic processes, a number of genotypes with high photochemical activity and appropriate morphophysiological characteristics are revealed. Their use in complex with investigated photosynthetic attributes, connected with the intensity of work in the leaves and the productivity of plants, is the beginning of the creation of new perspective grades. The development of these researches has proved that chloroplasts from high-productive genotypes are characterized by high rates of an electron transport and photophosphorylation and large values of пЃ„рН on a thylakoid membrane, and confirmd the presence of a connection between photosynthetic electronic transport, of СО2 assimilation and productivity. A structural organization of chloroplasts system was studied by a combination of derivative and polarization spectroscopy. As a result, the model of topography pigment-protein complexes in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, distribution and orientation of individual pigments in this complex was offered. It was concluded that a regulation of formation of pigment-protein complexes of photosystem 1, photosystem 2 and light-harvesting complex of a thylakoid mem-brane of wheat chloroplasts was mainly carried out at a posttranscriptional level. A new hypothesis about the existence in photosystem 1 and 2 of small labile proteins carrying long wavelength forms of chlorophyll а was suggested. The functional role of these proteins in the primary photosynthetic processes is discussed.
A long-term study of the mineral nutrition physiology in the life of plants, the development of macro- and microelements application system to maintain a buffer mode of a nitric nutrition, preventing the nitrate accumulation in a crop and rinsing them from the soil and also the development of a new manufacturing capsulated nitric fertilizer technology have formed the basis for the creation of a complex system of fertilizers, ensuring an optimal mode of mineral nutrition. The results of these investigations have been seen in the maximum increase of an efficiency of mineral fertilizers, significant increasing the productivity and improving the quality of production.
Developing of researches in the field of physico-chemical biology Professor Aliyev established the bases of development of molecular biology, molecular genetics, gene and cellular biotechnology, mathematical biology and bioinformatics in Azerbaijan. Now the studies on molecular biology of photosynthesis are successfully proceeding. Comparative restriction analysis was carried out by restriction enzymes and a chloroplast DNA genome library is created. It was revealed that restriction maps of chloroplast DNA of various species were differed and these peculiarities can be used in molecular phylogenetics. The complete nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PGPase) вЂ“ main enzyme of photorespiration from eucaryotic Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were determined (NCBI Nucleotide 1: ABO52169).
By vector systems constructed on the basis of existing and synthesized in author's laboratory plasmids gene transfer has been carried out and plant-regenerates, carrying the gene of stability, which is effectively expressed in the cells of transformed plants have been obtained. Peculiarities of the morphogenesis of a cell culture from mature and unripe germs are investigated, and plant-regenerates served as an initial material in the selection for the creation of the new forms and grades of wheat are taken from isolated cells of the callus of wheat have been received. On the model of cell culture the transfer of a foreign gene as a marker sign for gene-engineering was carried out. Also, a scheme of clone duplication of various agricultural plants by a method of cellular biotechnology and reception in vitro material was fulfilled.
The crisis ecological condition, particularly the pollution of soil by radionuclides and the products of radioactive decay, which in turn accumulate in a crop of agricultural plants, has determined some of Professor Aliyev's research. Since 1970, he has been studying the laws of distribution in a soil-vegetative cover of long-living nuclides. A common biochemical picture of the circulation strontium-90 and caesium-137 in a soil-vegetative cover of Azerbaijan has been given on the basis of the analysis of a cycle of the migration of these elements in a soil - plant, with forecasts of the possible pollution of the plants made. Practical recommendations for running agriculture in similar conditions were developed, based on the determined measures of radiation safety.
When the results are integrated in the multilateral aspects of research on photosynthesis, an idea was conceived about the so-called "good" photosynthesis being defined by a high and qualitative crop. The components of such photosynthesis are collected in genefund having unique photosynthetic attributes, productivity and tolerance; they are selected from old local wheat in the national and world genefund, in particular from VIR, CIMMYT, ICARDA, and others. The value of this genefund is determined by its specificity in the research of genetics of photosynthesis, in the study of its heritage and its ability to pass on photosynthetic attributes, in the revelation of the donor properties of its genotypes, and - in the complex realization of a teleological selection on the creation of grades close to an ideal type. The realization of the results of this fundamental research resulted in many grades of hard and soft wheat, such as Garagylchyg-2, Mirbashir-50, Vuqar, Shiraslan-23, Тartar, Barakatli-95, Alinja-84, Giymatli- 2/17, Akinchi-84 and others with excellent quality of grain and a productivity 7-8 t/ha. These occupy a large part of the sowing area of wheat in Azerbaijan and yield good results in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Georgia.